Glossary

Glossary

A

Accelerated Testing
Testing above a student's enrolled grade level to assess learning at the level of instruction rather than the grade level of enrollment (e.g., student is in grade 7 but takes a grade 8 math test).
Accessibility Features
The Student Testing Site has tools and settings that provide support for students, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast, or font size of an online test.
Accommodations
Students who meet the criteria outlined in Ohio’s Accessibility Manual are eligible for adjustments to the testing conditions, test format or test administration that provide equitable access during the assessment. Examples of accommodations include extended time or language translations.
Aggregation
Compilation of test result data for a group of students such as those in a school, a district, or the entire state.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area the item is intended to measure.
Alternate Assessment for Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities (AASCD)
Annual alternate assessment of students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. The AASCD is based on Ohio’s Learning Standards – Extended (OLS-E) and parallels the grades and subjects assessed by the OSTs.
Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC)
A term used to describe the different methods that can be used to help students with disabilities communicate with others. These methods can be an alternative or a supplement to speech and can include individual methods of sign and gestures, standardized signing, symbol systems, and complex electronic devices.
Alternative Computer Input Technology (ACI)
Assistive tools that allow students with various impairments (such as physical and visual impairments) to interact with a computer without using a traditional mouse and keyboard setup.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assesses a student's skills or area of knowledge.
Assessment Reports
Reports and information about how a student or a group of students did on a test. Assessment reports are available to educators in the Reporting System and provide details on student performance.
Assistive Keyboard and Mouse Input Technology
Assistive tools that provide support to students with physical impairments who need to use a keyboard and mouse to respond to test items.
Assistive Technology (AT)
Students who meet the criteria outlined in Ohio’s Accessibility Manual are eligible to use a range of assistive technologies, including devices that are compatible with the Student Testing Site, and those that are used externally (e.g., on a separate device). Assistive technology can include third-party software applications, such as screen readers, as well as standard input devices, such as adaptive keyboards, adaptive mice, and switch interfaces.

B

Building Reporting User (BRU)
A user role that only allows access to the Reporting System. This user role is appropriate for school staff authorized to access reporting data but not involved in any other aspect of the administration (e.g., school principal).
Building Test Coordinator (BTC)
A user role responsible for coordinating the administration of state assessments in a school building. Depending on the preference of the district test coordinator (DTC), the BTC may also be responsible for creating and maintaining user accounts in his/her school building [e.g., building reporting users (BRUs), teachers (TEs) and test administrators (TAs)].

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company owned by Cambium Learning Group that develops innovative online assessment applications, such as TDS (Test Delivery System) and TIDE (Test Information Distribution Engine).
Centralized Reporting System (CRS)
Also known as Reporting. A CAI system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments to educators and allows educators to hand-score some test items.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Chromebook
A laptop that runs Chrome OS.
Cohort
A group of students who have something in common, such as their class membership. In test reports, cohorts are commonly used to aggregate data for a group of students and measure their performance in an individual test or over time. (e.g., a roster of students in a teacher’s class.)
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored, such as Not Enough Data (ND) for a writing response item.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test intends to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing or writing an answer in a text box or by speaking the answer.
Content
Used to refer to the items and stimuli within a test, the reading passage or other media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within an item.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Drop down in the student testing site that provides tools available for individual items and stimuli (e.g., tutorial, strikethrough).
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is at the basic performance level, proficient performance level, etc.

D

Data Entry Interface (DEI)
The DEI is a component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) that allows authorized users to enter student assessment data, such as question responses and scores.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests including but not limited to desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets, and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Differentiation
Differentiation refers to a wide variety of teaching techniques and lesson adaptations that educators use to instruct a diverse group of students, with diverse learning needs, in the same course, classroom, or learning environment.
Dimension
A type of scoring criteria in a writing prompt item's rubric. (e.g., Conventions of Standard English is a writing dimension for the English language arts tests.)
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various subgroups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
A user role that the district test coordinator (DTC) can assign that allows the DTC to delegate tasks to one or more district personnel (e.g., special education coordinator, curriculum coordinator).
District Internal Retrieval Number (District IRN)
A state-assigned unique district identifier.
District Reporting User (DRU)
A user role that only has access to Reporting. This user role is appropriate for district staff authorized to access reporting data but not involved in any other aspect of the administration (e.g., district record keeper).
District Student ID (DSID)
A student identifier assigned by a district. This is not the same as the statewide student identifier (SSID).
District Test Coordinator (DTC)
A user role designating a test coordinator for an entire district. This person has primary responsibility for overseeing the administration of state assessments administered by that district. The DTC is the primary point of contact between the district, the Department and Cambium Assessment. Much of the communication concerning Ohio’s state assessments will be directed to the DTC.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Domain Exemption
Domain exemptions are for student situations that preclude engagement with any of the four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) for the OELPA or OELPS.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging a text or image object onto specified locations in a grid or image.
Duplicate Test Discrepancy
A type of discrepancy resolved in TIDE that occurs when TIDE detects two or more instances of the same test are submitted for scoring by the same student in the same test mode.

E

Edit Task Inline Choice (ETIC)
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in the blank in a sentence by selecting options from a dropdown list.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
Embedded Field Test (EFT)
Field-test procedure in which items are included among operational items on an operational test.
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application, such as background color and mouse pointer size.
EMIS Coordinator (EC)
A user role that has the ability to upload and edit student information in TIDE, as well as download student results data files from Reporting. This user role is appropriate for district staff serving as the Education Management Information System (EMIS) coordinator (or similar data-oriented position) but not involved in any other aspect of the administration.
End of Support
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for an operating system version.
English Language Arts (ELA)
The reading and writing skills assessed on the OSTs and AASCD.
English Learner
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Equation Response (EQ)
An item type that allows students to respond by clicking mathematical characters that appear in an on-screen keypad.
Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR)
An item type that requires students to answer a multipart question related to an accompanying passage or information presented in the stem.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Exemption from Testing
The exemption of a student from a testing requirement to which others are held.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Field Test
Procedure by which new test items are evaluated for future operational use.
Firewall (FW)
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment (e.g., masking, zoom).
Grade Band
One or more consecutive grade levels ((e.g., grades 6 through 8).
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled or, for students not assigned a grade, the academic grade of same-age peers who are in a general education classroom.
Grid Item (GI)
A type of item interaction that can offer several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.

H

Hand Scoring (HS)
The process of manually scoring test items, which may be performed by a hand scoring vendor or educators in the Reporting system.
Hand-Scored Constructed Response (HSCR)
A type of written response item that requires a scoring rubric that is scored by human readers.
Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.
Hot Text (HT)
An item type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.

I

Image Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text or image elements onto a background image.
Independent Field Test (IFT)
Field-test procedure in which items are not administered on an operational test.
Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised to reflect the decisions made by an interdisciplinary team, including the parent and student when appropriate.
Information Technology Center (ITC)
A user role that has the ability upload student information in TIDE only for districts with which they are associated. ITC accounts cannot be created by district personnel. Changes to the ITC account must be processed through the Ohio Help Desk.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Invalidate a Test - Test Status Request
A Test Status Request created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity. Also known as an Invalidation.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored question, exercise, or task on a test that students interact with to enter a response.

J

Job Access with Speech (JAWS)
A screen reader software designed to help people with vision impairments use computer applications.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems where a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language. An outdated term that has been replaced with English learner.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.
Local Scoring
A process that requires the test administrator to score the constructed-response items.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student or group of students at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Machine-Scored Constructed Response (MSCR)
A type of written response item that requires scoring logic or a machine rubric to score.
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice (MC)
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select (MS)
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics (Nemeth Code)
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.
Non-Matching School Discrepancy
A discrepancy occurring when a student submits a test while enrolled in one school, but TIDE’s records indicate that the student was enrolled in another school at the time of testing. These discrepancies are resolved in TIDE.

O

Ohio Computer-Based Assessments (OCBA)
Alternate name for Ohio’s State Tests.
Ohio English Language Proficiency Assessment (OELPA)
Annual assessment used to determine if an English Learner should be reclassified out of the EL program based on his/her proficiency in reading, writing, listening, and speaking English.
Ohio English Language Proficiency Screener (OELPS)
Initial assessment used to determine if a student should be classified as an English Learner based on his/her proficiency in reading, writing, listening, and speaking English.
Ohio Graduation Tests (OGT)
Tests that were a graduation requirement for students in the classes of 2007-2017. The OGTs are available until June 30, 2022, for former students whose classes required them.
Ohio's State Tests (OST)
Assessments given to Ohio students in grades 3-8 and high school.
Online Reporting System (ORS)
A CAI system that provides comprehensive assessment performance reports for individual students and student groups, such as rosters and schools.
Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing or field testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Operational Field Test (OPFT)
Field test method in which items are placed on an operational form and included in determining the students’ scores on that form if the items perform well.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item from which students select an answer.

P

Paper Order
Also known as a test materials order. An order for paper-and-pencil test materials, such as test booklets, answer documents, and other accommodation materials. Paper orders are typically managed in TIDE.
Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information (PII)
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
Also known as test portal. A website that serves as a one-stop shop for educators involved in the online assessment process, providing access to CAI systems, training sites, tutorials, and other resources.
Predictive Text Technology
A type of assistive technology that suggests words to students as they type responses to test items.
Pre-ID Label
Pre-ID labels are used to associate a scorable paper document with a student for reporting. All scorable paper documents must have a Pre-ID label applied before districts return the materials for scoring.
Prompt (P)
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions or question to which they must respond.

R

Raw Score
The number of points earned on a test or test item.
Re-open a Test - Test Status Request
A Test Status Request created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was submitted, completed or invalidated.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a Test - Test Status Request
A Test Status Request created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses in the test) or allows the data entry to be restarted.
Restore a Test That Has Been Reset - Test Status Request
A Test Status Request created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
Also known as scoring rubric. A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full-credit or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

Scale Score
A raw score that has been converted to a standard scale for reporting purposes.
School Internal Retrieval Number (School IRN)
A state-assigned unique school identifier.
School Year (SY)
The academic year, given as a range ((e.g., 2020 to 2021).
Score Input (SI)
An item type that is used for tests in which teachers or test administrators enter a student's score directly into a test form.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for users with vision impairments.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser (SB)
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox (Inbox)
Also known as assessment systems inbox. The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Simulation (SIM)
A type of stimulus that requires students to interact with inputs to make choices and run a scenario to receive data.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Speaking Response
An item type that requires students to respond by speaking.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Statewide Student Identifier (SSID)
A unique alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Not Found Discrepancy
A type of test discrepancy resolved in TIDE that occurs when the identifying information on a paper answer document is not found in TIDE.
Student Portfolio Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a particular student.
Student Results Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available.

T

Table Input (TI)
An item type that requires students to respond by entering information in a table.
Table Match
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking checkboxes in the cells of a table to match together terms that appear in the column and row headers.
Take a Test (TAT)
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher (TE)
A user role available to personnel who will administer any Ohio assessment to students. Additionally, this user role also is able to enter the students’ scores or responses in the Data Entry Interface (DEI) for applicable assessments. Last, this user can access Reporting.
Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs)
Test items that take advantage of the computer-based environment to present interactions and elicit responses in ways that may not be possible on a paper-based test.
Test
Also known as an assessment. An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge.
Test Administration Certification Course
A certification course offered to potential test administrators in order to prepare them for use of CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
Also known as the TA Interface. A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist.
Test Administrator (TA)
A user role available to personnel who will administer any Ohio assessment to students. Additionally, this user role also is able to enter the students’ scores or responses in the Data Entry Interface (DEI) for applicable assessments. The user does not have access to Reporting and is appropriate for personnel who proctor a test but do not need access to reporting data.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site, the Student Testing Site, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Form
A compilation of one or more test items and/or tasks that comprise the full test.
Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE)
A CAI system that allows educators to manage user and student information. It includes student registration, gathering of demographic data and materials ordering.
Test Mode
The means by which a test is administered. Tests may be administered online or one paper.
Test Name
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems (e.g., Biology)
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Presentation
The language in which a test is displayed to the student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes (e.g., pre-instruction). Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. A test may be divided into multiple segments based on defined criteria. The AASCD and the OELPS are examples of tests that have segments.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays the test status of every test for a test administration.
Test Status Request
There may be times when district test coordinators need to ask the Department to make exceptions to online testing rules. Test status requests are submitted in TIDE with detailed rationale by the district test coordinator for Department approval. The most common test status requests are to reset, reopen, and invalidate a test opportunity.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes a student’s name and SSID for logging in to a test in TDS.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity, typically 20 minutes.
Test Window (TW)
The range of dates during which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text (letters, words, or phrases) into blank spaces within a sentence or paragraph.
Text-to-Speech (TTS)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
User
An educator who can access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Voice Pack (VP)
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).